sexta-feira, 6 de novembro de 2009

Cooperative freedom theory - Anotated bibliography

This anotated bibliography was created to better understand the cooperative freedom theory and whith the knowledge brought, create a critical work about.

Kemczinski, Avanilde; Marek, Joel; da Silva Hounsell, Marcelo; Gasparini, Isabela–COLABORAÇÃO E COOPERAÇÃO – PERTINÊNCIA,CONCORRÊNCIA OU COMPLEMENTARIDADE - Brasil www.producao online.ufsc.

In this article the authors argue about “the relevancy, competition and/or complementarity of the processes of the collaboration and cooperation front different points-of-view".One of the first focuses goes to the difference between “cooperative” and “colaborative”. For the authors the fundamental problem is to know in what way that matters in a e-learning ambiance. in literature the opinion between authors is not consensual. Being so, the autors of this article give us a brief explanation of each point of view so as the fondamentation.They conclude that all of the point of view are relevant, and that cooperative and colaborative are complementary concepts.

Dr. Morrison; Behavioral Strategy Abstract: Self-Pacing Versus Instructor-Pacing Jennifer Maddrell Old Dominion University IDT 873 Advanced Instructional Design Techniques September 8, 2008

The purpose of this study is to compare achievement, student satisfaction, and retention between self-paced and instructor-paced personalized systems of instruction The researchers set out to extend prior research by focusing on the effect of pacing on these measures”
“Unfortunately, the authors offer the results as a demonstration of learning achievement, but it is unclear from the results what precisely was learned”

The main objective of research, was to establish whether and under what circumstances collaborative learning was more effective than learning alone. The authors present some of the major developments over recent years in this field, and then considers the implications of such changes for tools and methods with which to observe andanalyse interactions between learners.or them “a social structure in which two or more people interact with each other and, in some circumstances, some types of interaction.
The conclusion of this chapter could therefore be that we should stop using the word 'collaboration' in general and start referring only to precise categories of interactions. The work of Webb, reported above, showed that even categories such as 'explanation' are too large to be related to learning outcomes. We have to study and understand the The fundamental question in this article is: “What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education?”
For these authors, transparency and cooperation are the supports of quality. As conclusion they say that the “pedagogical potential of social networking lies within transparency and the ability to create awareness among students”

That’s why they believe that:

“Transparency is important for cooperative online education. People can only cooperate if they know about each other and have access to some common information and services. Cooperation will benefit when general and personal information related to the learning and the learners is available directly or indirectly to the learning community. This transparent information may include personal information about the users and statistics related to the users’ deployment of the online tools. It may further include work students and teachers provide in online notebooks, blogs, and discussion forums as well as results from quizzes, surveys, and assignments.”Pedagogical potential that can be viewed in social networks is obviously related with the “special kind of communication and interaction afforded by social networking sites”. It will be very useful to consider social networking as a supplement to other tools.

Paulsen, Morten (2003); “Cooperative Freedom: An Online Education Theory”. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from

It’s referring the three theoretical positions on distance education, identified by Keegan (Theories of autonomy and independence; Theories of industrialization, and Theories of interaction and communication) that Paulsen begin to expose his Theory of Cooperative freedom.

To Paulsen one of the targets in a distance education course “it’s to achieve the high level of freedom for the students”, and the better way to arrive there is using the hexagon of the theory: Time, Space, Pace, Medium, Access and Content.

But the conclusion shows us some difficulties:

Future adult students will seek individual flexibility and freedom. At the same time, many need or prefer group collaboration and social unity. These aims are difficult to combine, but online education, when integrated with other media, can be the means of joining individual freedom and collective unity into truly flexible, cooperative distance David D. Curtis education programs.

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